Making concrete and steel creates pollution, however ET3 tubes require 1/35th as much concrete and steel as elevated High-Speed-Rail (HSR). Furthermore, ET3 tubes can transport 10 times more people per hour than HSR, so material utilization for ET3 is over two orders of magnitude better than HSR. It is estimated that HSR will take 30 years to recover the energy cost of construction by savings. (Other studies show that today's cars use less energy than trains, so trains will never recover the construction energy. Typical ET3 energy savings (compared to electric trains or cars) will recover the energy cost of construction in a few months.
Does making the tubes create pollution?
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